Proxmox Virtual Environment, (PVE) is an open-source hypervisor manager.

Based on Debian and with a modified Ubuntu LTS kernel it allows deployment and management of virtual machines (KVM) and containers (LXD).

Differently from XCP-ng, Proxmox VE includes a web interface and provides a REST API for third-party tools.

It can be downloaded for free at [Link] and if necessary use the USB Imager to create a bootable thumb drive [Link].


Creating a bootable USB for installation:

dd bs=1M conv=fdatasync if=./proxmox-ve_7.1-2.iso of=/dev/sdc

Updating and upgrading:

apt update
apt upgrade -y
apt dist-upgrade -y

In order to avoid error messages about a repo that is not signed (because it requires subscription), comment all lines in the file /etc/apt/sources.list.d/pve-enterprise.list.

Go on your browser to https://192.168.1.103:8006/ and create a new and strong password to the default user root.


CLI COMMANDS

  • man qm
  • qm list
  • qm start 100
  • qm shutdown 100
  • qm reboot 100
  • qm reset 100
  • qm stop 100
  • qm config 100
  • qm set -onboot 1 100
  • man pct
  • pct list
  • pct start 101
  • pct shutdown 101
  • pct reboot 101
  • pct config 101
  • pct set -memory 1024 101
  • pct enter 101

INSTALLING THE GUEST AGENT

sudo apt install qemu-guest-agent -y

BEFORE CREATING AN IMAGE FROM A VM

sudo rm -rf /etc/ssh/ssh_host_*
sudo truncate -s 0 /etc/machine-id
sudo dpkg-reconfigure openssh-server

IMPORTING A VM

wget http://192.168.1.100:8080/Kali-Linux-2021.4-virtualbox-amd64.ova
tar xvf Kali-Linux-2021.4-virtualbox-amd64.ova
qm importovf 100 ./Kali-Linux-2021.4-virtualbox-amd64.ovf Storage --format qcow2

If the import of the disk (*.ovf) fails, create a new VM manually then:

qemu-img convert -f vmdk Kali-Linux-2021.4-virtualbox-amd64-disk001.vmdk Kali-disk001.qcow2 -O qcow2
qm importdisk 100 Kali-disk001.qcow2 Storage

OTHER CLI TIPS

Wiping a secondary disk from CLI:

wipefs -fa /dev/nvme0n1
dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/nvme0n1 bs=1M count=1000
udevadm settle
reboot

APPLIANCE MANAGER

pveam update
pveam available
pveam download local debian-10-turnkey-nextcloud_16.1-1_amd64.tar.gz

ATTACHING AN USB DEVICE TO A VM (PASSTHROUGH)

For the example bellow I am attaching a Wireless Adapter model AX200 from Intel (WIFI-6).

lsusb | grep AX200

Output: Bus 001 Device 002: ID 8087:0029 Intel Corp. AX200 Bluetooth

qm set 112 -usb0 host=8087:0029,usb3=yes

Output: update VM 112: -usb0 host=8087:0029 

OR

Using the Web-UI:

Experiment to find the option that matched better to your needs:

 


PROXMOX BACKUP SERVER (PBS)

PBS is an open-source backup software VMs, containers, and physical (Debian/Ubuntu) hosts [Link].

After the installation, the web interface of the PBS will be available on port 8007 (i.e. https://10.10.10.10:8007/).

Installing PBS Client on Debian/Ubuntu physical instances:

echo "deb [arch=amd64] http://download.proxmox.com/debian/pbs-client bullseye main" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/pbs-client.list
sudo wget http://enterprise.proxmox.com/debian/proxmox-release-bullseye.gpg -O /etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/proxmox-release-bullseye.gpg
sudo apt update
sudo apt install proxmox-backup-client -y

Backing up the root of the file system:

sudo su -
proxmox-backup-client backup root.pxar:/ --repository 10.10.10.10:backup1

Backing up with encryption key:

proxmox-backup-client key create backup.key
proxmox-backup-client backup root.pxar:/ --repository 10.10.10.10:backup1 --keyfile ./backup.key

Listing backups and snapshots:

proxmox-backup-client list --repository 10.10.10.10:backup1
proxmox-backup-client snapshot list --repository 10.10.10.10:backup1

Creating an environment variable for the target repository:

export PBS_REPOSITORY="10.10.10.10:backup1"
echo $PBS_REPOSITORY